Frequently Asked Questions

Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP)

Q: What is Platelet Rich Plasma?

A: Platelet Rich Plasma, otherwise known as PRP, is a solution derived from one’s own blood, which has the capacity to stimulate the regeneration of new, healthy tissue. It is formulated in our office (same day as treatment) through a specialized centrifuge process which concentrates platelets and growth factors into an injectable solution. This solution is then injected into a targeted area, activating the body’s natural process for regenerating healthy skin, hair and connective tissue.

Q: What are the risks to using PRP?

A: PRP is derived from your own body, posing little danger of allergy, hypersensitivity or foreign-body reactions. Risk of infection at the injection sites is even further reduced given the presence of white blood cells (components of your immune system) in the PRP. A clean technique is used throughout the process to minimize exposure to microbes (infectious agents). Contraindications include anyone with active cancer, platelet or bleeding disorders, patients on blood thinners and immunosuppressive medications (eg. steroids). 

PRP Hair Restoration

Q: How does PRP for Hair Restoration work?

PRP contains growth factors which stimulates proliferation of cells. When injected into the scalp, this effect activates the growth (anagen) phase and turns down the shedding (telogen) phase of the hair cycle. Studies have shown that PRP increases both the number of active follicles as well as hair thickness.

Q: What should I expect during my PRP for Hair Restoration treatment?

A: At the beginning of the visit, a small amount of blood, which will be used to create the PRP, is drawn from the patient. As the PRP is processed in the centrifuge (using a double-spin approach), the scalp is then prepped for the procedure and before pictures are taken. PRP is then injected just under the skin of the scalp with very fine needles in the targeted areas. 

Q: Does this procedure hurt?

A: A local anesthetic and buffering agent is mixed with the PRP to improve comfort during the treatment. Most people tolerate the procedure well, reporting mild discomfort from the injections. Mild soreness in the treated area may linger for 1-2 days following the procedure. Although often unnecessary, Tylenol and ice can be used after the procedure to address lingering discomfort. A local anesthetic prior to the procedure may be administered if desired, please consult with the doctor performing the procedure. 

Q: Who is the best candidate for this procedure?

A: PRP Hair Treatment is a safe choice for many patients with thinning hair and hair loss. The treatment is most effective for those with diffuse thinning, early balding, and receding hair lines. Advanced hair loss does not typically respond to treatment. 

Q: How many treatments do I need?
A: The recommended course of treatment includes 3 treatments spaced 4 weeks apart. A maintenance treatment is recommended every 6-12 months depending on individual needs.

Q: When should I expect to see results?

A: Peak results occur 6-9 months following the initial treatment.

Q: How much does each treatment cost?
A: Costs of the procedures varies, but typically range between $500-800, depending on individual need. Discounts are available for pre-purchase of 3 treatments. Please set up a 15 minute complimentary consult to discuss treatment and cost options.

Q: Are there studies on PRP for Hair Restoration?

A: Yes, there are several small scale studies on PRP for Hair Regeneration that suggest that PRP is effective and safe for hair growth. Many of our patients report satisfaction with the results. Considering its excellent safety profile and relatively low cost, PRP hair treatment is a promising treatment option for patients with thinning hair. Please see Resource page for links to studies.


Q: What is Platelet Rich Plasma Skin Rejuvenation?

A: Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) for Skin Rejuvenation combines the collagen-inducing effect of micro-needling with the regenerative power of PRP. PRP Skin Rejuvenation naturally stimulates regeneration of the epidermis (top layer of skin), corrects damaged tissue, and reduces inflammation. Results include improved skin tone, texture, and complexion. There is a “Basic” and “Advanced” PRP Skin Rejuvenation procedure, please see below for details.


Q: What is the difference between the “Basic” and “Advanced” PRP Skin Rejuvenation procedures? 

A: The “Basic” procedure involves micro-needling with PRP being “painted” on over the micro-needled area. PRP and micro-needling combine to have an additive effect on skin regeneration. The “Basic” treatment is ideal for individuals with mild to moderate signs of aging, scarring, hyper-pigmentation and skin sagging or thinning. 

The “Advanced” procedure includes the “Basic” procedure outlined above, with the addition of  concentrated PRP injections into targeted areas such as deeper wrinkles, scars, pronounced sagging and/or hollowed appearance. Commonly treated areas include “11” lines/ between brow creasing, under and around eyes, naso-labial folds, and “Marionette lines”. Please consult with your FoRM provider regarding the most appropriate treatment for you.


Q: Which areas are treated with PRP Skin Rejuvenation?

A: PRP skin rejuvenation is typically performed on the face and is a more subtle and natural alternative to other common cosmetic procedures, such as dermal filers. It also can help offset the skin-thinning effect which can occur with botox injections over time. Other commonly treated areas include neck, chest, abdomen and hands.


Q: How many treatments are needed to see results from PRP Skin Rejuvenation?

A: For best results, a series of 3 monthly treatments are recommended, depending on treatment goals. Some patients report immediate improvement in skin appearance, but many patients notice initial improvement 4 weeks after first treatment. Each additional treatment provides additive improvement to skin appearance.


Q: When can I expect to see results and how long do the results last?

A: Results following PRP procedures for hair & skin can last up to 1-2 years from the final treatment dependent on individual’s age and health status. To optimize treatment effectiveness, we encourage patient’s to work with their FoRM physician to address underlying health issues, optimize nutritional and hormonal health during and following treatment. 1-2 annual maintenance treatments are recommended to maintain the benefits.


Q: Cost of treatment?

A: Costs of the procedures varies, but typically range between $500-800, depending on individual need. Discounts are available for pre-purchase of 3 treatments. Please set up a 15 minute complimentary consult to discuss treatment and cost options.


Medical Aesthetic Laser Treatments

Q: Sublative (Laser) Skin Resurfacing:

A: How does Sublative work?

Heat, via Radiofrequency, is precisely directed into the deeper layers of skin via a laser applicator, in the form of a matrix. The penetrated heat then stimulates a healing response within the skin. As a result, new collagen and healthy skin cells are produced. Mild to moderate wrinkles and superficial imperfections of your skin’s tone and texture are appreciably reduced and skin appears healthier and more youthful.


Q: Is Sublative right for me?

A: It is a “needle-free”, non-invasive cosmetic procedure aimed at improving the appearance and health of the skin’s surface, providing almost immediate results. It is most appropriate for those looking to address mild to moderate wrinkles and superficial imperfections of your skin’s tone and texture. This treatment is a safe and effective solution for most skin types. To optimize anti-aging effects, it may be combined with IPL Photofacial and PRP Skin Rejuvenation- please inquire about combined treatments during your consult.


Q: When can I expect to see results?

A: Typically 5-10 days after treatment, as the skin recovers from the treatment. Each treatment has an additive effect, so to optimize results,  3- monthly treatments are recommended. The total number of required treatment sessions depends on your skin’s condition.


Q: Does it hurt?

A: During treatment, many patients feel a warm, prickly sensation as energy enters their skin. Most treatments last 30 min. Topical anesthetic ointments and cooling are used to reduce unpleasant feelings during treatment. 


Q: What can I expect after the treatment?

A: Immediately following treatment, it is common to have a light (pink) “sunburn” appearance for 24-48 hours. As the “sunburn” appearance fades, your skin will have a mild grid-like pattern (from the matrix) typically for 7-10 days following treatment. The “grid” then sloughs off,  revealing healthier, more rejuvenated skin. Mineral based make-up can be worn beginning 24 hours following the procedure. Many patients return to normal activities immediately after treatment.


Q: What is the cost of the treatment?

A: Costs vary and discounts may apply. Please schedule an in-person consult to discuss pricing and to determine if Sublative is the right treatment for you.


IPL Photofacial

Q: How does IPL Photofacial work?

A: This treatment combines bi-polar radio frequency (heat) and light therapy to precisely and safely fade pigmented lesions such as freckles, sun & age spots, and acne. Vascular lesions such as spider veins and redness from rosacea are also lightened and gradually fade.


Q: Is an IPL Photofacial right for me?

A: This treatment is most appropriate for those looking to reduce the appearance of darkened lesions and small blood vessels on the surface of the skin. It can also help reduce the appearance of active acne and hyper-pigmentation from past acne lesions. It may not be appropriate for those with very dark complexions or recently tanned skin. To optimize anti-aging effects, it can be combined with Sublative laser treatment and PRP Skin Rejuvenation. Please inquire about combined treatments during a complimentary consult.


Q: When can I expect to see results?

A: Initial results are visible typically 1 week following treatment. Gradual and cumulative improvement of skin tone is typically achieved over the course of 3-6 treatment sessions, as the lesions continue to fade with each treatment, and in many cases, completely disappear. The total number of required treatment sessions depends on your skin’s condition. Schedule a consultation to establish your personalized treatment schedule.


Q: Does it hurt?

A: Patients may experience transient discomfort with each pulse of the laser. Any discomfort ends with the completion of treatment. Most treatments last 10-20 min.  


Q: Is there down-time?

A: This is a no downtime procedure. Most patients return to normal activities immediately treatments. Following treatment, targeted lesions appear darker for a short period of time, typically lasting 3-5 days. During this time, mineral-based make-up can be used to cover darkened lesions.


Q: What is the cost of the treatment?

A: Costs vary and discounts may apply. Please schedule a 15 min phone or in-person consult to discuss pricing and to determine if IPL Photofacial is the right treatment for you.

Motif Laser Hair Removal

Q: How does Laser Hair Removal work?

A: Hair follicles are precisely targeted and destroyed using combination of bi-polar radio-frequency and light energies.


Q: Is Motif Hair Removal right for me?

A: Both men and women can achieve permanent hair reduction on almost any body area. We use an E-los laser which is proven to be effective for removing lighter colored hair on all skin tones. To achieve a successful outcome on lighter hair, more treatments may be needed compared to darker hair.


Q: When can I expect to see results?

A: Hair growth is reduced after each treatment. The number of treatments required will be based on your hair color, hair type, body area and skin tone.


Q: Does it hurt?

A: We cool the skin surface during treatment to improve comfort throughout the treatment. In addition, our E-los laser constantly measures the skin’s resistance to ensure safety

and comfort during treatment. This is a no-downtime procedure. Many patients return to normal activities immediately after treatment.


Q: What is the cost of the treatment?

A: Costs vary and discounts may apply. Please schedule a 15 min phone or in-person consult to discuss pricing and to determine if Laser Hair Removals is the right treatment for you.




Q: What is micro-needling and how does it work?

A: Micro-needling procedures involve the use of an automated medical device, consisting of several tiny needles, which create micro-punctures when applied to the skin’s surface. The puncturing of the skin ignites a “healing response”, causing a release of growth factors which signal tissue repair, resulting in increased collagen and elastin production and more youthful skin. Micro-needling treatments are performed with the administration of hyaluronic acid and Vitamin C serums or - as outlined above - with Platelet Rich Plasma. Dr. Herman proudly uses Collagen P.I.N., an automated FDA-approved micro-needling device.


Q: Is micro-needling right for me?

A: Micro-needling can be an effective stand alone treatment for reducing the appearance of fine lines, sagging skin, hyper-pigmentation, acne scars, stretch marks and is very useful at preventing signs of aging and maintaining a youthful appearance. This is a good first-line, anti-aging treatment to try before considering other, less natural treatments, such as botox or dermal fillers. Many clinical studies have proven that microneedling is an effective skin resurfacing technique without downtime or risk of skin injury


Q: How many treatments are needed to see results from micro-needling?

A: For best results, a series of 3-6 monthly treatments are recommended, depending on treatment goals. Some patients report immediate improvement in skin appearance, but most notice initial improvement 1 month after first treatment. Each treatment provides additive improvement to skin appearance.


Q: What is the cost of treatment?

A: Each micro-needling treatment is $200. Discounts apply for packages of 3 treatments. Please schedule a 15 min phone or in-person consult to determine if Micro-needling is the right treatment for you.

FAQ Functional Medicine:

Q: What conditions and symptoms can be addressed with Functional Medicine?
A: Almost any health problem can be helped with Functional Medicine. Identifying and correcting obstacles to health is the first step and can result in tremendous improvements in health, no matter the condition. The one exception, is we do not treat cancer patients at our clinic.


Q: What can I expect from my first Functional Medicine appointment?

A: The first visit is typically an hour long. During that time the doctor will spend the first half of the appointment listening to your concerns and asking questions to get a complete picture of your health story. The second half of your visit will include an exam (when appropriate) and discussion of an action plan to strategize both short-term and long-terms solutions for regaining health. 


Q: What type of services and treatments are typical in Functional Medicine?

A: Initially treatment will focus heavily on lifestyle (sleep, stress management, exercise, etc) and dietary interventions to establish a stronger foundation of health. You will work closely with your doctor to develop health-forward, sustainable routines which work for you. After these adjustments have been made, the focus becomes strengthening weakened systems (eg. supporting the respiratory system when frequent lung infections are the concern) with with an integrative approach using natural remedies and procedures. Common treatments include: herbal medicine, therapeutic diets, IV therapies, nutritional supplements, hydrotherapy and/or prescription medications. Eventually, the last goal is to establish routines which maintain health and prevent development of chronic disease. This involves quarterly visits to your FoRM provider to proactively navigate the changing seasons and the evolving needs of our bodies.


Q: How much do Functional Medicine visits cost?

A: Often, insurance will pay for the Functional Medicine visits at FoRM. In these instances, you will be responsible for the co-pay or co-insurance, which vary from plan to plan. Our providers are in network with most major insurance plans. If you would like to use your insurance plan, please provide your insurance information to the front desk so they can verify your benefits before your first visit. If you do not have insurance or have an out of network plan, we discount the cost of all visits and procedures, when paying at the time of service. Please call front desk for estimated costs. On the occasion that there may be additional costs, your provider will full disclose this information before providing treatment to avoid unexpected fees.


Q: What conditions are appropriate to treat with IV Nutritional Therapy?

A: IV nutritional therapy is easily customized for almost any condition or complaint. This is a list of popular IV formulas:

  • Energy Burst 
  • Hangover Recovery 
  • Immune & Wellness 
  • Brain Boost
  • Athletic Repair & Recovery
  • Sports Performance
  • Anti-anxiety & Mood boost
  • Weight Loss
  • Anti-aging & Skin support
  • Hormone Balance


Q: What is IV Ozone therapy? 

A: IV Ozone therapy, also known as Major Autohemotherapy (MAHT), involves drawing a small amount of blood into a closed sterile bag along with saline, to which medical grade ozone is added. The mixture of ozone and your own blood- creates highly oxygenized, bright red blood which is then re-infused into the body. It is a popular treatment in Europe over the past several decades and has a high safety profile. 


Q: What are the theorized effects of IV ozone?

A: IV Ozone or MAH is an "experimental procedure" with the following potential benefits: 

• Ozone may stimulate the production of immune cells and helps balance the immune system
• Ozone may kill bacteria, fungi, mold, and viruses
• Ozone may activate anti-cancer processes in the body
• Ozone makes red blood cells more elastic and flexible
• Ozone improves energy utilization and production in your body.


Q: What are common conditions treated with IV ozone therapy?

A: This treatment is recommended on an individual basis. Your FoRM provider may recommend this treatment whenever the above-mentioned effects would be beneficial to you.


Q: What are the costs of IV therapy?
A: IV therapy is rarely covered by insurance as it is considered experimental in nature. Costs of IV nutritional therapy range from $88 to $300 per treatment depending on length of infusion and nutrients used. IV ozone typically costs $154 per treatment. Your FoRM doctor will review the cost before administering IV therapy.


Q: Are there contraindications to receiving IV therapy?

A: IV therapy is typically considered safe as most ingredients are naturally occurring and work well with your body. However, there is always a risk of experiencing a sensitivity or allergic reaction to any substance used, even when natural. Other risks include bruising, pain or infection at the site of injection. There are a few cases of chronic conditions, such as kidney or heart disease, which are contraindications to receiving IV therapy. Your FoRM provider will discuss the risks and contraindications with you before providing this service.


Advanced Laboratory Testing

Q: What lab testing options do you offer at FoRM?

A: There are many laboratory options available, which can be difficult to navigate and know which is the best test for you. Your FoRM provider will discuss which test(s) are the most indicated for your unique circumstances. See below for the most commonly used lab tests.

Popular Advanced Laboratory Tests:

  • Food Sensitivity Testing
  • Comprehensive Hormone Testing
  • Stool (Microbiome & Digestive Function) Testing
  • Adrenal & Cortisol Testing
  • Advanced Cardiometabolic Panels including inflammatory markers, early diabetes detection and detailed cholesterol panels
  • Autoimmune Panels


Q: Are there additional costs associated with these tests?

A: Yes, these tests are often not covered by insurance. On occasion, your insurance may pay a portion of the cost after you have paid a set amount up front. All costs associated with these labs go directly to the lab company. Your FoRM provider does not benefit financially from ordering these tests. All expected fees will be discussed with you prior to ordering the tests, though fees are subject to change at the discretion of the lab company. In contrast, standard lab tests, either partially or fully,  are often covered by your insurance plan.


Regenerative Injection Therapy

Q: How does prolotherapy work?

A: Prolotherapy works by causing a mild inflammatory response at the site of injury, with an injected substance, typically dextrose.  The inflammation results in a new healing response which helps to repair damaged tissues, such as ligaments and tendons. 

Read more about prolotherapy and links to studies in our RESOURCES section.

-> link to video


Q: I’ve heard prolotherapy involves multiple injections.  Is this true?

A: In general, yes.  Often prolotherapy is used for joint injuries which involves ligament damage or laxity (weakness).  Since there are many ligaments around a joint, including the joint capsule itself, most if not all of the ligaments are treated to help get maximal stability.  When a joint is injured (sprain, rolled ankle, etc) it is virtually impossible to injure just a single ligament because of the stretch that occurs through the entire joint.


Q: How does Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) work?

A: Platelets are normal components of the blood that are involved in the initial stages of inflammation and repair at an injury site.  PRP involves drawing a patient’s blood and concentrating the platelets in a centrifuge.  These platelets are then reinjected to injured tissue.  The platelets release molecules (cytokines) that signal an injury to the body and help start (or re-initiate) a healing response.  


Q: What are the contra-indications to Regenerative Injection Therapy?

A: In general regenerative injections utilize very safe substances (dextrose, short term anesthetics) or the patient’s own blood.  However, injections are not performed into or around active sites of injection, active cancer, or when a patient has major clotting or blood disorders.  There may be other relative contraindications that are discussed during your initial visit.  Systemic conditions or chronic diseases such as diabetes might delay or interfere with a optimal response, but are not necessarily reasons to avoid treatment.


Q: Does Regenerative Injection Therapy, such as prolotherapy and PRP, hurt?

A:  Treatment pain and post-injection soreness varies greatly from case to case, depending on what type of tissue is injected, the joint or location, and the degree of injury or damage.  Prior to treatment, a small amount of local anesthetic (usually lidocaine) is injected to help numb the area for needle insertion and reduce discomfort.  Intra-articular (inside the joint) injections are typically well tolerated with little to no discomfort. For ligament, tendon and other soft tissue injection sites there can be 2 periods of mild to moderate discomfort:

  • During Treatment: There is often mild to moderate soreness when injecting sites surrounding joints and into soft tissues.  Occasionally, particularly when injecting tendons with PRP, there can be an acute “crescendo” of pain for 5-10 minutes.  This is a normal (and expected) inflammatory response caused by the PRP being injected and initiating the immune response at the injury.  Advances in PRP preparation have greatly reduced this level of pain compared to many years ago, although these temporary flares may still occur. 
  • Following Injections: Since both prolo and PRP injections stimulate an immune response as part of the process to re-stimulate healing and repair, there is typically soreness around the injected tissues for 3-5 days on average.  This is usually worst for the first 1-2 days after a treatment, and gradually diminishes.  Movement of the joint may be sore and even restricted for the first couple days.


Q: What can I take for soreness or pain following injection therapy?

A: Tylenol is recommended for post-treatment soreness.  For certain injections, the doctor may prescribe a very short course of narcotics such as vicodin or tramadol.  Part of the mechanism for how regenerative injections work involves an immune response, which begins with inflammation.   As such, anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac should be avoided for at least  7 days prior to and following therapy. 


Q: How many prolotherapy treatments are needed?

A:  The average number of prolotherapy sessions is usually 3 to 6.  Patients are typically re-assessed after 3 treatments, to determine the need for additional treatments.


Q: How many PRP treatments are needed?

A: The average number of PRP treatments is usually 2 to 3. 


Q: How often should I get prolotherapy or PRP injections?

A:  Prolotherapy treatments are typically done at 3 week intervals.  PRP treatments are usually done at 4-6 week intervals.  This may vary further on a case by case basis depending on what is being injected.


Q: What is the difference between prolotherapy and PRP?  Which one is better?  How do I know which one I should get?

A: While prolotherapy and PRP both can stimulate a healing, or regenerative, response there are some differences in how they work.  PRP works when the platelets injected release signaling molecules (called cytokines) to initiate an immune response, the first stages of healing.  Prolotherapy uses dextrose (most commonly) to cause irritation at the site of injection, stimulating inflammation and a subsequent immune response.  Dextrose is also theorized to have an osmotic effect, tightening ligaments, as well as may help calm associated nerve damage/irritation at the site of injury.


Neither treatment is better, rather certain conditions may respond better to one or the other, and in some cases we may use a combination.  In general, however, prolotherapy is used for ligamentous injuries, while PRP is increasingly being used for tendon and internal joint (arthritic) conditions.  During your initial visit, a thorough exam and history will be performed to decide which therapy is most appropriate for your condition.


Acupuncture and Dry Needling

Q: What is the difference between acupuncture and dry needling?

A: In a broad sense, acupuncture and dry needling are essentially the same; both techniques utilize small needles that are inserted through the skin.  Beyond that, however, there is typically a difference in both the decision as to where to apply the needles and how they are used or manipulated.  While some acupuncturists essentially use a style basically identical to dry needling, for many patients the experience can be quite different.


Acupuncture is based on a 2000+ year old system of Chinese philosophy which at a very basic level looks at the human body as essentially an energetic system existing in a state of fluctuating balance/imbalance. Meridians, or channels, in the body related to an organ network (similar, but not synonymous with anatomic organs) help identify sites of blockage or imbalance where needles can be inserted. Systemic imbalances, again related to the organs and the overall state of the person, are further treated with medications, herbs, food/nutrient choices etc that aim to restore the imbalance. This Chinese Medicine view is complex, needing extensive training in the philosophy to fully understand it, or at least its application from a health standpoint. Attempts to prove or understand it from a Western medical or anatomical view are difficult as basically it is like speaking two different languages or religions, i.e. intermixing French and Japanese when speaking, or trying to explain Christianity through Buddhist terms. Acupuncture applied from within its own context can be very effective for a variety of conditions, as proven both in studies and by its presence in medical care for over 2 millennia.


Dry needling, in contrast, is based on a strict Western anatomical basis. Regions of tight, constricted muscles are identified.  Needles are inserted into (often) predictable sites of the muscles, usually motor or trigger points, and manipulated until a twitch in the muscles is elicited. This twitch is basically a quick contraction of the muscle.  The twitch is essential; when a muscle contracts it typically then causes a reflexive relaxation of that muscle, thereby calming or re-setting the tone of the muscle.  


Interestingly, and where the debate often comes in across different practitioners, is that acupuncture points often coincide or overlap with the points used in dry needling. This is of no surprise, however, and helps prove both therapies when you consider that two different viewpoints or philosophies end up with the same therapeutic site.


Q: Does acupuncture or dry needling hurt?

A: Acupuncture typically does not hurt at all, other than an occasional very slight poke when a needle is inserted. Treatments are often very relaxing, and patients may experience immediate pain reduction or increasing pain relief over the course of treatments. Dry needling also has minimal if any discomfort with needle insertion. The twitch of muscles is not as much painful, as much as a the often strong contractions are more involuntary and uncomfortable. When applied, however, this is often a good sign, as the muscles needed a strong contraction to release.  Without any contractions elicited, dry needling is often not needed.  After a dry needling session, muscles are typically sore for 12-24 hours.  


Q: Do I have to rest or limit activity after a dry needling treatment?

A: In general, no. Movement can actually help reduce any lingering soreness from dry needling. At the same time, it is recommended to avoid intense exercise within 24 hours of a dry needling session 


Ultrasound Imaging and Guidance


Q: What are the advantages to using ultrasound guidance for injections? 

A: Ultrasound provides a dynamic (live motion) method of viewing soft tissues without radiation. We are able to watch a needle and can direct it to a specific structure or site of damage, including joints. This provides the major advantage of ensuring we are injecting a substance exactly where we want it, while avoiding potentially fragile structures such as arteries and nerves.  


Q: Do you use ultrasound guidance for injections?

A: In general, yes, especially with PRP. When treating joints, damaged tendons and certain sites close to major nerves or arteries, ultrasound is used for accuracy and safety.  Some procedures, particularly involving prolotherapy, require injecting multiple ligaments that are often relatively accessible by feel to a well-trained physician.  In many of these cases ultrasound is not required, mainly from a time perspective. 



Q: What is Prolozone?

A: Prolozone is a technique, similar to prolotherapy, that involves injecting a mix of procaine anesthetic, anti-inflammatory medication, vitamins, and ozone/oxygen around or into a joint or site of pain.  The mix of substances can help calm inflammation, reduce pain and stimulate regeneration. Ozone can specifically reduce pain, while stimulating the immune system and oxygen utilization. 

* For a complete overview of how prolozone works, written by the creator of this treatment, please click here.